Let's introduce numbers in Croatian. They are actually a diverse group of words, some of them behave like adjectives, others like nouns, most like adverbs. I will show just the simplest use, how to express 59 or some time in a day.
The numbers 0-9 are:
Numbers 10-19 are:
They are basically just 1-9 + -naest, with četiri shortened a bit. Most people pronounce just an e in sequences -ae- in the words listed above.
Then, there are special words for 20, 30, etc, made in a similar pattern (but note the stress marks):
30 trideset ▶
40 četrdeset ▶
50 pedeset ▶
To express numbers like 35, use the following construct with i¨ and:
35 trideset i pet
It's often shortened so these two numbers just get ‘glued together’:
We can use those numbers to tell time. If you want to say that something happens or will happen at some time, use just u¨ + number that specifies the hour:
Vlak dolazi u tri. The train comes at three o'clock.
You can, as in English, use the present tense for things that will happen in the near future, especially if their time is known.
To specify where a train/bus/airplane is going to, use the preposition za¨ + A (specifying the destination) just after the noun meaning train/bus/airplane:
Vlak za R
ijeku odlazi u pet. The train to Rijeka leaves at five o'clock.
Autobus za Split odlazi u sedam. The bus to Split leaves at seven o'clock.
If you want to use more precise time, you can specify minutes:
Vlak dolazi u tri i dvadeset. The train arrives at 3:20.
Officially, Croatian uses 24-hour system, that is, 3 pm is 15:00. In schedules, and radno vr
ijeme working hours, time is usually shown as 15:20 or 15.20, sometimes with appended h. Sometimes, in handwriting, time is written as 1520, that is, with minutes in superscript:
Colloquially, people would just use tri 3 even without telling is it in the morning or afternoon.
To ask what the time is, use the following expression. It's normal in Croatian to give a quite short answer:
Koliko je sati? What's the time? (lit. ‘How many hours is it?’)
— Tri i dvadeset. It's 20 minutes past three.
Such short, basic answers or short comments are very common in speech, and I will explain them regularly. They are not impolite.
The word skoro can be used before any time (or more generally, any measure). For example:
Koliko je sati? What's the time?
— Skoro pet. Almost five.
(It's interesting that Standard Croatian prefers another word, gotovo, instead of skoro which completely prevails in speech and casual writing!)
It's, of course, possible to ask when something will happen; to ask, just put the following word to beginning of a sentence, nothing else is needed:
For example (you should always include a preposition when you answer such questions):
Kada dolazi vlak za Os
When does the train to Osijek arrive?
— U četiri i dvadeset. At 20 minutes past four.
If you don't know the precise time, you can use the preposition oko¨ instead of u¨:
Vlak dolazi oko dva. The train arrives around two o'clock.
A short answer to the previous question could be:
— Oko dva. Around two o'clock.
If you want to emphasize that some time is exact, add točno exactly ® before the usual expression:
Vlak dolazi točno u tri. The train arrives at exactly 3 o'clock.
There are words for noon and midnight:
Again, use u¨ + A to specify something happening at that time (for both words A = N):
Autobus odlazi u podne. The bus leaves at noon.
You can simply say:
Ponoć je. It's midnight.
Sad je podne. It's noon.
Of course, the word sad(a) is optional. You cannot use any personal pronouns in such sentences; in fact, podne serves as the subject.
What if you want to tell it's almost midnight? Then the word je will come between two words:
Skoro je ponoć. It's almost midnight.
The same holds if you use pet 5 instead of ponoć, etc.
Colloquially, time is often expressed in halves:
Brod dolazi u tri i pol. The ship comes at half past three. (‘three and a half’)
(In colloquial speech, there are several quite different ways to express time by halves and quarters, and there are different ways according to region; see 58 Colloquial and Formal).
Here are days of week in Croatian:
ponedjeljak (ponedjeljk-) Monday
utorak (utork-) Tuesday
četvrtak (četvrtk-) Thursday
petak (petk-) Friday
The week always starts on Monday. Days of week are normal nouns in Croatian, they are not always capitalized as in English. (As other nouns, they change according to their role, by means of case endings!)
We can simply say:
Danas je sr
Today is Wednesday.
If you want to say that something happens or will happen on a weekday, use again u¨ + A:
ijedu se vraćamo u Zagreb.
We're going back to Zagreb on Wednesday.
Kada Ana odlazi u Split? When is Ana leaving for Split?
— U subotu. On Saturday.
This quite familiar word can also be used:
If something is going to happen on/over the weekend, use za¨ + vikend:
Idemo na Brač za vikend. We're going to the island of Brač over the weekend.
® In Serbia and often in Bosnia, a slightly different word tačno is used.