There’s a very important group of Croatian verbs having similar forms, so it’s worth learning them together. It’s also interesting that some of them can behave as imperfective verbs, despite being basically perfective.
First, the following verb has a simple meaning, just physically stand somewhere. Unfortunately, it’s a bit irregular:
stajati (stoji) stand
Stajao sam tamo satima. I was standing there for hours.
There’s an important verb similar to it, but more regular:
postojati (postoji) exist
It’s used without objects, just to express that something exists (or not):
Jeti ne postoji. The Yeti doesn’t exist.
You will sometimes hear its present forms stressed as postoji.
Next, there is a verb pair that means stop, come to stand:
stajati (staje) ~ stati (stane) stop
Since this verb implies a kind of motion (that’s coming to stand), it’s used with destinations, while stajati (stoji) is a static verb, therefore it’s usually used with locations:
Stajao sam pred vratima. I was standing in front of the door. (pred + I = loc.)
Stao sam pred vrata. I stood in front of the door. (pred + A = dest.)
This verb has one more meaning: fit (into something, e.g. vine into a bottle, clothes into a suitcase). In that meaning, the perf. verb is common in the present tense as well, including the true present (that is, things going on at the very moment of speaking):
Hlače ne stanu u kofer. The trousers don’t fit into the suitcase.
The past form of the perf. verb, in neuter singular, is used in a phrase:
DL + biti (je² +)° + stalo do¨ G = DL cares about G
This phrase is a way to express that someone cares about somebody or something. Here the word stalo has no past meaning: it’s used as an adverb, žao or dosadno. like The verb biti is impersonal, and can be in any tense:
Ani je° stalo do Gorana. Ana cares about Goran.
Ani je bilo stalo do mame. Ana cared about her Mom.
Compare it with e.g. Ani je bilo drago – it’s exactly the same structure, apart from the do¨ + G.
The infinitive (and consequently, past forms) of the impf. verb stajati (staje) are exactly the same as for the verb meaning stand, but since the impf. verbs are mostly used in the present tense, confusion is rare.
There’s a group of very common and important verbs derived from it:
(nastane) come to exist
nestajati (nestaje) ~ nestati (nestane) disappear
ostajati (ostaje) ~ ostati (ostane) stay, remain
postajati (postaje) ~ postati (postane) become
prestajati (prestaje) ~ prestati (prestane) stop (doing something), cease
The perf. verbs in the pairs above are sometimes stressed as nastati (nastane) – the ‘western’ stress is on a different syllable in present forms.
If you are confused by similarity of impf. and perf. verbs listed above, there’s one simple difference: the impf. verbs have a -j- in all their forms – infinitive, present, past, some forms I haven’t explained yet – and the perf. verbs never have it in any form.
The verb pair derived with o- has come curious properties. The perf. verb ostati (ostane / ostane) behaves a bit like a imperfective verb. For example, it can be used with time periods, unlike other perf. verbs. Compare:
Ostao je u bolnici dva sata. He remained in hospital for two hours.
Čekao je u bolnici dva sata. He waited in hospital for two hours.
You cannot do it with e.g. napisati (napiše) perf. write. Therefore, the impf. verb ostajati (ostaje) is basically used in the present tense only.
Otherwise, the verb is very similar to English stay and remain: you can stay somewhere, something, with someone, etc. It’s a very versatile verb:
Ostao je kod kuće. He stayed at home.
Ostali su zajedno. They stayed together.
The past form of the perf. verb is used as a real quantity adjective (as with other past forms used as adjectives, a form with -i, ostali is the basic form):
ijesto je u frižideru.
The remaining pastry is in the fridge.
It’s often used as a pronoun as well; in the same way as other adjectives, e.g. sav (sv-), the neuter singular forms are used for things, and masc. plural forms for people.:
Ostali će doći sutra. The rest (of them) will come tomorrow.
Ostalo će doći sutra. The rest (of it) will come tomorrow.
These two adjectives-used-as-pronouns are often used together, meaning all the rest:
Svi ostali su u dvorištu. ‘All others are in the yard.’
Sve ostalo je u kutiji. All the rest is in the box.
The verb pair derived with po- is similar to biti (je² +) be – it corresponds to English become or to English get with adjectives:
Postat će tata. He’ll become a dad.
Postala je pametnija. She became smarter.
Postajem gladna. I’m becoming hungry. (impf., I = female)
This verb, like be, usually uses objects in N (e.g. tata dad is obviously in N)! It’s also used with weather expressions, again in the similar way as biti be:
Postaje° vruće. It’s getting hot. (impf.)
Postalo je hladno. It became cold.
The verb pair derived with ne- means roughly disappear, but it also covers meaning run out, and is also used when e.g. there’s suddenly no electricity, water... or even beer in the fridge. The prefix comes from negation historically, but it’s always spelled together with the verb in this case.
What is interesting with this verb pair is that often uses indefinite quantities (expressed by nouns in G) as their subjects, and consequently, as default for quantities, the verb behaves as if the subject is neuter singular:
Nestalo je benzina. The petrol ran out.
Nestalo je struje. The electricity is out.
The same thing can be expressed also with the negative existential:
Nema° više benzina. There’s no more petrol.
Nema° više struje. The electricity is out.
The verb pair derived with pre- is usually used with impf. verbs in infinitive, or with some noun that can "last" and then "stop" (e.g. rain, road, danger):
Kiša je prestala. The rain stopped.
Goran je prestao plakati. Goran stopped crying.
The opposite meaning – begin, start – is expressed with an unrelated verb pair (the perf. verb has a bit unexpected -n- in present!):
počinjati (počinje) ~ početi (počne) start, begin
The verb pair is used in the same as the pre- pair. For example:
Kiša je počela. The rain started.
Goran je počeo plakati. Goran started crying.
Such verbs that indicate start or end points are often called phase verbs. Pay attention that with these verbs, only impf. verbs in inf (e.g. plakati) are used. There’s no accomplishment, the focus in on starting or stopping an activity.
The following verb pair has a very simple meaning:
ustajati (ustaje) ~ ustati (ustane) stand up
The following verbs follow exactly the same pattern:
pristajati (pristaje) ~
pristati (pristane) consent, agree
odustajati (odustaje) ~ odustati (odustane) give up
The first verb is often used with content clauses (I will introduce them in a short while), or with na¨ + A. The second verb uses od¨ + G to describe what you’re giving up:
Ana je pristala na ručak. Ana has agreed to have a lunch.
Ana je odustala od izleta. Ana has given up on the excursion.
The following verb pairs have opposite meanings:
sastajati (sastaje) se² ~ sastati (sastane) se² get together, meet
rastajati (rastaje) se² ~ rastati (rastane) se² split, separate
While English usually makes derived verbs with detached prepositions, Croatian always uses prefixes. You will notice that often these two Croatian verb prefixes match the English prepositions used to derive verb meaning:
|ra- / ras- / raz- apart||s- / sa- together|
The following verb a bit special, it’s derived with nedo- (again, the ne is always spelled together), and there’s no perf. verb corresponding to it:
nedostajati (nedostaje) lack
This verb is used when there’s not enough something, or something is missing completely:
Jedan dio nedostaje. A part is missing.
It’s very often used with experiencers in DL, one who feels something is missing:
Nedostaje mi Igor. I miss Igor.
What or who is missing is in N (or G, for "some amount"!) and the verbs follows it:
Nedostaješ mi. I miss you.Nedostajala si mi. I missed you.
Nedostaje mi šećera. (G) I miss sugar.Nedostajalo mi je šećera. (G) I missed sugar.
There’s a colloquial, and very common verb with the exactly same meaning and use:
faliti (colloq.) lack
Jedan dio fali. (colloq.) A part is missing.
Fališ mi. (colloq.) I miss you.
Fali mi šećera. (colloq.) I miss sugar.
This table summarizes all verbs derived from the ‘base’ verb pair:
|stajati (staje) ~ stati (stane)|
|(none)||(come to) stand|
|na-||come to exist|
|pri-||(na¨ A)||consent, agree|
|odu-||(od¨ G)||give up|
|ra-||se² (od¨ G)||split, separate|
|sa-||se² (s¨ I)||get together, meet|
There are more verb pairs derived from this base pair, e.g. with zao- meaning lag, fall behind and so on.