76 Inner and Outer: More on Space and Time


Here are two spatial adverbs that distinguish locations from directions, with associated prepositions:

  dir. loc. preposition
outside van ® vani ® izvan outside of
inside    unutra unutar within

All prepositions are, as expected, used with G. For example:

Hotel ne radi izvan sezone. The hotel doesn't 'work' outside of the (tourist) season. (= isn't open)

Sometimes the adverb van can be used with nouns, as a kind of preposition, so you'll hear and read both van sezone and izvan sezone.

The following adverbs stand both for origins and locations, in the following way: the same adverb means from outside and on the outer surface. We can call them origin/surface adverbs:

izvana from outside, on the outside
iznutra from within, on the inside
odozgo from above, on the top side
odozdo from below, on the bottom side

For example:

Hladan zrak dolazi izvana. The cold air is coming from the outside.

It's possible to derive relational adjectives from the adverbs above. Such adjectives are derived by adding -ski, -nji or -šnji. However, since they are far from regular, they have to be remembered as separate adjectives:

vani outvanjski outer ®
unutra insideunutrašnji inner
gore upgornji upper
dolje downdonji lower

It's also possible to derive relational adjectives from many specific time adverbs (e.g. today), as well and you have to use them – there's no other way say today's newspaper in Croatian; they are always derived with -šnji; if the original adverb ends in -s, it's lost:

danas todaydanašnji
noćas tonightnoćašnji
jučer yesterdayjučerašnji
jutros this morningjutrošnji
večeras this eveningvečerašnji
sutra tomorrowsutrašnji

(The difference večerašnji vs. večernji is the same as večeras vs. večer.)

They are also derived from non-specific time adverbs in the same way:

sad(a) nowsadašnji
tad(a) thentadašnji
nekad(a) a time agonekadašnji
prije beforeprijašnji

English has few adjectives that correspond to Croatian ones: sadašnji translates as current, present, and nekadašnji as former. For example:

To su jučerašnje novine. This is yesterday's newspaper.

The adjectives derived from adverbs for last evening and last year do not follow this scheme:

sinoć last eveningsinoćni (also sinoćnji)
lani last yearlanjski

(the rest coming soon...)

® Instead of van and the related words, the following words are common in Serbia, parts of Bosnia and even in some parts of Croatia:

5 Easy Croatian: 76 Inner and Outer: More on Space and Time N A  DL  G 24 I Here are two spatial adverbs that distinguish locations from directions , with associated prepositions:   dir...

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