So far we have learned three cases (apart from the default, nominative case, where there's nothing to learn). All forms we have seen were in singular: we couldn't say I'm eating apples or birds are singing.
Let's now see how nouns look in plural. We'll start with the simplest possibility: nominative and accusative plural for nouns ending in -a and for neuter nouns (that is, more or less all nouns that end in -o or -e).
The rules are very simple:
jabuka apple →
pismo letter → pisma letters
more sea → mora seas
Couple of feminine and neuter nouns exist only in their plural forms; they will be indicated with their gender and "pl.":
gaće f pl. underpants|
hlače f pl. trousers ®
naočale f pl. eyeglasses ®
novine f pl. newspaper(s)
škare f pl. scissors ®
leđa n pl. back(s)
pluća n pl. lung(s)
vrata n pl. door(s)
usta n pl. mouth(s)
Some English nouns, including translations of the Croatian nouns listed above have the same property – there are only scissors and pliers.
So we now know how to make the nominative form in plural, but what about the accusative case? It turns out that for such nouns, the accusative plural is equal to the nominative plural! So we can say:
Jedem jabuke. I'm eating apples.
Pišem pisma. I'm writing letters.
There are couple of neuter nouns that don't have regular plurals; if you want to express plural you will have to use something called mass noun that will be explained soon. Often used nouns with such problem are:
janje (janjet-) lamb
pile (pilet-) chick|
štene (štenet-) puppy
Such nouns are easy to distinguish: they all get an additional t in their case-base.
Four frequently used neuter nouns shift their stress in plural forms:
ime (imen-) name →
jezero lake → jezera
rame (ramen-) shoulder → ramena
ijeme (vremen-) time/weather →
A few neuter nouns have alternative, more expressive and poetic, longer plural forms on -esa; the most common is:
nebo name → nebesa
Unfortunately, we still don't know how to say birds are singing: we need to make plural of the first Croatian verb form we have learned, pres-3. How to make it? The rules are a bit more complicated than for other verb forms, it depends of the last letter of the pres-3:
|-a||-aju||pjevati sing → pjevaju|
|-i||-e||voziti drive → voze|
|-e||-u||jesti (jede) eat → jedu|
It's interesting that pres-3pl for any verb ends in either -u or -e. For example:
Ptice pjevaju. Birds are singing.
Many verbs that end in -a in pres-3 have – in the Standard scheme – the stress in the pres-3pl on the same syllable as in the inf, regardless of stress in other present forms. This is a rather small detail, and even if you're trying to learn the Standard stress, you might just ignore it.
If we want to express what more than one subject is doing (or their state) we can link them with the following word:
Ana i Goran pjevaju. Ana and Goran are singing.
Ivan i Damir jedu. Ivan and Damir are eating.
There's a common way to express mutual action, corresponding to English each other – just use se²:
Ana i Ivan se vole. Ana and Ivan love each other.
As you can see, here se² is actually the fourth word, since the words Ana i Ivan are treated as one ‘unit’.
This use explains farewells like vidimo se and čujemo se – they mean we're seeing each other (later, again) and so on. If you know a Scandinavian language, e.g. Danish, you'll notice it has exactly the same construction!
We can also say (we use oni for an all-male or mixed group):
Oni se vole. They love each other.
There's another way to express the mutuality, by a small phrase jedan drugog (all male/mixed) or jedna drugu (all-female). Both literally mean one another:
Ana i Ivan vole jedan drugog. Ana and Ivan love one another.
What about expressing states and properties, like birds are beautiful? We must first be able to put adjectives to plural as well, both to nominative and accusative! Since adjectives always follow the noun pattern, accusative will be equal to nom. (we can list both together as NA-pl). Even better, for feminine and neuter adjectives, endings will actually be the same as for nouns:
Then, we need the pres-3pl form of the verb to be:
biti (je² +) be → su²
So now we can say:
Ptice su l
ijepe. Birds are beautiful.
And we are able to say:
To su ptice. These are birds.
Pay attention that in demonstrative sentences, to stays in singular, unlike in English.
There are few verbs – otherwise irregular – that have a bit irregular pres-3pl as well. They end in -ći in infinitive, have pres-3 in -če, but the pres-3pl in -ku. Common ones are:
peći (peče) bake → peku
teći (teče) flow → teku
tući (tuče) beat, smack → tuku
vući (vuče) pull → vuku
If a verb has pres-3 in -če, but its infinitive ends in -ti, there's no such complication: the pres-3pl is completely regular:
vikati (viče) yell → viču
What about feminine nouns in a consonant? It's quite simple – they just get an -i in their N-pl, and the accusative is the same as nominative:
Noći su duge. Nights are long.
Now, there's a small problem. Croatian has usually specific words for male and female people/animals – pairs like prijatelj friend (m) and prijateljica friend (f).
How do you call a group of friends, if some of them are male, some female? Croatian has then a notion of default gender. For most terms, the default gender is masculine. You simply use the masculine noun in plural, but the meaning is rather generic or mixed.
However, for some animals, the default gender is feminine. Such animals are:
(There are more.) So, if you see a bunch of cats, either of mixed sex, or you don't know their sex, you simply refer to them as if all were feminine.
Let's summarize changes of feminine (and all nouns that end in -a) and neuter nouns in plural:
|noun type (N)||NA-pl|
|nouns in -a (≈ fem.)||-a → -e|
|neuter nouns (≈ in -o, -e)||-o or -e → -a|
|fem. not in -a (e.g. noć)||add -i|
Plural of masculine nouns and the corresponding adjective forms are a bit more complicated, so they will be explained a bit later.
® In Serbia, and sometimes in Bosnia, the following nouns are used instead of the nouns listed above (forms used there are given after arrows); they have plural forms only as well:
hlače → pantalone
naočale → naočare / naočari
škare → makaze