We know how to say the red apple, even my apple, but not your apple or Ana's apple. So, let's learn it.
As I have already explained, words like my (or Ana's) are simply adjectives in Croatian (more accurately, possessive adjectives). They are not adjectives in English, where you cannot say the my apple, but you can say the red apple. That's one example where Croatian is simpler than English.
As the rule, possessive adjectives never get the optional -i in masc. N.
Each possessive adjective corresponds to one pronoun. There are three sets of pronouns with similar forms; the first set is:
|ja I||moj my|
|ti you (sg.)||tvoj your|
All three end in -j, so they get -em and -eg instead of -om and -og, but, like moj, the other two adjectives above have additional, shortened forms in neuter and masculine genders as well:
|alt. endings for moj, tvoj, svoj|
|masc. / neut. DL:||-ojem = -om|
|masc. p/a A:||-ojeg = -og|
You can use them as any adjective:
Čekamo tvog brata. We're waiting for your brother.
Čekamo tvojeg brata. (the same meaning)
Pišem poruku tvojoj sestri. I'm writing a message to your sister.
The following two adjectives don't have any special forms, they change as normal adjectives (of course, since they end in an -š, they get -em and -eg in neuter and masculine):
|mi we||naš our|
|vi you (pl./resp.)||vaš your|
The last set contains the 3rd person pronouns. Here Croatian does not distinguish neuter from masculine possessive:
|ona she||njen her
njezin her ®
|ono it||njegov its/his|
one they (f)
ona they (n)
oni they (m)
Knjiga je njihova. The book is ‘their’. (= theirs)
Čitam njegovu poruku. I'm reading his message.
There are two possessive adjectives that correspond to ona she. Both are used, you can use any you like.®
If you were careful, there was a mysterious possessive svoj. It should be used when something belongs to the subject of the sentence. For instance, if Ana is writing a letter to her brother, you would use it:
Ana piše pismo svom bratu. Ana is writing a letter to her (= Ana's) brother.
In real life, it's not always used in 1st and 2nd person, so you will hear and sometimes read e.g.:
Pišem pismo mom bratu. (colloq.) I'm writing a letter to my brother.
The reflexive possessive svoj doesn't distinguish owner's gender and number, i.e. it's the same in masc. and fem., singular and plural – and that elegantly solves a classic problem in English, obvious in these three sentences:
Everyone loves his mother. or
Everyone loves his or her mother. or
Everyone loves their mother. ?
The first option is problematic since everyone includes women too; the second option is too long, and the third option is condemned by some. Croatian simply uses:
Svatko voli svoju majku.
(The indefinite pronoun svatko will be explained in 41 Somewhere, Nobody, Everything...)
How to make possessives out of names? In English, you just add 's, but it's slightly more complicated in Croatian. It's simplest for names ending in -a: just replace it with the -in, and you're done. It works also for nouns in -a standing for people (e.g. tata Dad):
Ivana → Ivanin
Luka → Lukin
mama Mom →
sestra sister → sestrin
tata Dad → tatin
For nouns and names that end in -ca, the c changes to č when -in is added:
prijateljica friend (f) → prijateljičin
The noun majka mother also has a change in consonants, but not other nouns ending in -ka:
majka mother →
baka grandmother → bakin
What about male names that change as if ending in -a, like Ante? They also make possessives with -in:
Čekamo Antinu sestru. We're waiting for Ante's sister.
This also usually applies for female names that don't end in -a and therefore don't change at all (however, some people use alternative methods, to be described a bit later), e.g.
|Doris → Dorisin||Ines → Inesin|
For male names ending in a consonant or names like Marko, you should add an -ov (or -ev after Croatian-specific letters). It works for nouns standing for people as well:
Ivan → Ivanov
Marko → Markov
sin son → sinov
prijatelj friend (m) → prijateljev
If a noun ends in -c (or its case-base), it turns to č when -ev is added:
otac (oc-) father (formal) → očev
princ prince → prinčev
All these words are adjectives, they change in case and gender! For example:
Čekamo Aninu sestru. We're waiting for Ana's sister.
Sjedim u Hrvojevoj kuhinji. I'm sitting in Hrvoje's kitchen.
Since they are adjectives, they are more flexible than English possessives:
Auto je Anin. The car ‘is Ana's’. (= belongs to Ana)
Possessives in Croatian are often used in street names, for example Branimir street – one of major streets in Zagreb – is actually Branimirova ulica Branimir's street. The word ulica street is often dropped when it's obvious what we're talking about. (With specific streets, you should use the preposition u¨):
Ivan živi u Branimirovoj ulici. Ivan lives on ‘Branimirova’ street.
Ivan živi u Branimirovoj. (the same meaning, but shorter)
There's just one problem: you can create a possessive adjective in Croatian from a single noun only. In English, you can just turn the last word into a possessive, but not so in Croatian. Here's what I mean:
mačka cat → mačkin cat's
crna mačka black cat → ?
Croatian uses a completely different construct for the latter phrase, and we'll learn it immediately.
________® The possessive adjective njezin is considered archaic outside Croatia.