Now, let me introduce a couple of very useful verb pairs. The first one is the main way to express success and failure in Croatian:
ijevati («) ~ uspjeti (uspije, uspio, uspjela) succeed
The impf. verb has the Standard stress shift to the 1st syllable (-ije- is usually one syllable when inside a word), but the perf. verb is pronounced as three syllables in the present tense: us-pi-je, like piti (pije) drink.
Unlike English, this verb takes a verb in inf – or an infinitive clause, i.e. an inf with an object and possibly other words attached – as its object. It can be translated with English succeed or manage:
Uspio sam r
I succeeded in solving the problem.
Uspjela je otvoriti prozor. She managed to open the window.
Nisam uspio pročitati knjigu. I failed to read the book.
This verb is not used to ‘manage household’ and similar things – only to manage to do something.
Like trebati need/should, this verb pair can be – and often is – used in the ‘reverse’ mode: what is achieved (or not) is the subject (in N), and the person (or animal) who was responsible is optionally expressed in DL. As usual, if the subject is a verb in inf, it behaves like neuter singular:
Uspjelo mi je r
I succeeded in solving the problem.
Uspjelo joj je otvoriti prozor. She managed to open the window.
In this mode, the verb pair is more versatile: the subject can be something that you succeeded in making (or failed to make). Now you must observe the gender of subject in the past tense:
Kolač je uspio. The cake turned out fine.
Uspio nam je kolač. We succeeded in making the cake.
I have already explained important verbs derived from ići (ide, išao, išla) go and stajati (staje) ~ stati (stane) stand, now I will show you two more important ‘families’. The first one is derived from the verb pair:
stavljati ~ staviti put, place
These verbs are simple to use – just use A for what you put, and a destination (unlike in English!) for where you put something:
Stavio sam pivo u frižider. I've put the beer in the fridge.
The verbs are derived from this pair in the same way as with the stand pair: the same prefix is attached to both verbs and we get a new pair with a different meaning than the original one. Two pairs we have already encountered:
ostavljati ~ ostaviti leave (a thing)
pretpostavljati ~ pretpostaviti suppose, assume
The verb pair ostavljati ~ ostaviti is frequently used with a metaphoric location na miru in peace, in meaning leave alone, that is, not interfere:
Ostavio sam ga na miru. I left him alone.
Another frequently used verb pair is:
nastavljati ~ nastaviti keep on, continue
This pair is usually used with another verb in inf (it can be also used with an object in A, usually some activity). This is another phase verb – the verb after it should be impf., since we describe action, and not outcomes:
Nastavio sam čitati. I continued reading.
This can be also translated as kept on reading – this verb pair is the way to express that meaning in Croatian. Also, you likely noticed that the prefix na means on.
This verb pair translates to several meanings in English:
postavljati ~ postaviti set
The basic meaning is set, in the meaning fix, put on an elevated place, erect (a monument), but also make ready (e.g. set the table). It's not used in the meanings set free, set in motion (Croatian has specific verbs for such actions):
Ana je postavila stol. Ana has set the table.
When you want to express where something is placed or fixed, you have to use destinations, like for the base pair, but again unlike in English:
Postavit ću sliku na zid. I'll put the picture on the wall.
Interestingly, this verb is also the most common verb used to formulate and ask questions:
Postavio sam dva pitanja. I asked two questions. (I = male)
These two verb pairs have exactly the opposite meaning:
rastavljati ~ rastaviti take apart, disassemble
sastavljati ~ sastaviti put together, assemble
When you disassemble something, the result is expressed in na¨ + A (usually in plural):
Goran je rastavio igračku na d
ijelove. Goran has disassembled the toy to its parts.
The following table summarizes this verb pair and its (common) family:
|stavljati ~ staviti|
|none||A (+ dest)||put, place|
|po-||A (+ dest)||set, place, erect|
|A na miru||leave alone|
|na-||A / inf||continue|
|pretpo-||da + clause||suppose that...|
|ra-||A (na A)||take apart (to...)|
There are more verb pairs derived from this base pair; these were just the most common ones.
Another very common verb family is derived from:
davati (daje) ~ dati give
The verb pair is simply used with two objects, one in A (what is given) another in DL (who got it):
Ana je dala Goranu čokoladu. Ana has given Goran a chocolate.
This verb pair has more uses than this basic one (it could be argued that dati behaves as a ‘modal’ verb in some circumstances). They will be explained gradually.
It's interesting that the perf. verb dati is often used in the present tense, especially when negated, to indicate intentions:
Ne dam ti loptu. I don't want to give you the ball.
This applies only to literal meaning of ‘give’, not when e.g. ‘giving a lecture’.
This verb pair is also used in an interesting phrase:
davati (daje) ~ dati + sve od sebe do his/her/their best
Dali smo sve od sebe. We did our best.
All verbs derived from this pair follow the same pattern, e.g.:
dodavati (dodaje / dodaje) ~ dodati
I'll show you three common derived verb pairs. Each of them behaves like the base pair: there are two objects, one in A, another, optional, in DL.
With the prefix do-, the meaning is add, but also pass (e.g. salt or ball in a game):
Ivan je dodao loptu Marku. Ivan passed the ball to Marko.
This verb can be used for mathematical addition, but there's another verb pair with the specifically mathematical meaning:
zbrajati ~ zbrojiti add (in math)
With the prefix pro-, the meaning is sell:
Darko je prodao auto Ani. Darko sold the car to Ana.
Ivan prodaje jabuke. Ivan sells apples.
The third common verb pair is derived with pre-, with the meaning hand over:
Poštar je predao pismo Ani. The postman handed the letter over to Ana.
The impf. verb from this pair is also used in meaning give lectures (for more information, check 73 Learning and Renting: Verbs Shifting):
Ivan predaje matematiku. Ivan teaches math.
This table summarizes the four verb pairs:
|davati (daje) ~ dati|
|pre-||A (DL)||hand over|
There are more common verbs derived from this pair. One of them is derived with u-. It behaves differently than the pairs above, and has a bit unexpected meaning: marry. Moreover, its use is rather specific; for more details, check 89 Customs and Traditions.
All the pairs we have seen are simply derived from the base pair, by prefixes. This pattern of derivation can be called symmetric.