Now I will introduce you to various verbs derived from ići (ide, išao, išla) go.
The verb is irregular in the pres-3 and past forms, and verbs derived from it are also irregular. They have a wide range of meanings, some of them have both a literal meaning and metaphorical one.
There’s a very important difference compared to English. Take a look at the following English sentences:
I went into the room.
I came into the room.
I entered the room.
English has a set of verbs (enter, leave, etc.) that are used with simple objects: you just enter something.
Not so in Croatian: most motion verbs behave as go and don’t use objects, but rather destinations or locations. For example:
Išao sam u sobu. I went into the room.
Ušao sam u sobu. I entered the room.
All verbs are organized into impf. ~ perf. pairs. Actually, all impf. verbs derived in those pairs are perfectly regular. The two simplest verb pairs are:
dolaziti ~ doći (dođe, došao, došla) come
ulaziti ~ ući (uđe, ušao, ušla) enter, come into
As you can see, these two verb pairs have exactly the same forms, just one pair starts with do- and another with u-. All verbs derived from ići have exactly the forms like the verbs above, except for two verbs, so it’s much less to remember than it seems.
Doći ćemo sutra. We’ll come tomorrow.
The stress patterns of verbs depend on the number of syllables in the prefix, e.g. verbs derived with do- do not have the same pattern as ones derived with iza-.
The following verb deviates from the above pattern:
odlaziti ~ otići (ode, otišao, otišla) leave, depart
It’s a very frequently used verb pair. The impf. verb means depart, leave:
Odlazimo na plažu. We’re leaving for the beach.
This perf. verb is a bit ambiguous. It stands for two things: departure (like the impf. verb) and completing then whole motion:
Otišla je na plažu.
1 She has left for the beach. (departed)
2 She has gone to the beach. (completed)
The meaning #2 is just perfective of ići (...) go: the motion is completed.
On the other hand, do- corresponds to English come/came:
Došli smo na plažu. We came to the beach.
There are more Croatian verb families that show this opposition. Their pair with ot- or od- is similar to one described above – a bit ambiguous perf. verb, often being just perfective of the base verb, and another pair, derived do-, similar to come.
For both pairs, the place you’re going to is expressed as a destination.
When you want to express that you leave some place, you have to use origins (that is, the right prepositions + G), and not objects:
Otišli smo iz Zagreba. We left Zagreb.
This verb pair means only go somewhere or leave a place; there’s another Croatian verb pair that means go and not take something (e.g. leave the wallet):
ostavljati ~ ostaviti leave (e.g. keys)
Ostavila sam novčanik negdje. I left the wallet somewhere. (I = female)
This verb pair is also used when you intentionally leave things, e.g. for someone:
Ostavila sam ručak za tebe u frižideru. I left the lunch for you in the fridge.
If you know some Spanish, you can see these two Croatian verb pairs correspond to two Spanish verbs: salir (leaving a place) and dejar (leaving a thing).
Another verb also deviates from the above pattern:
izlaziti ~ izaći (izađe, izašao, izašla) come out, exit
It is used in a similar way to odlaziti, but mostly for closed spaces, e.g. rooms, houses, etc. You have to use origins:
Izašla sam iz sobe. I came out of the room.
The perf. verb in this pair has also an alternative form, with izi- instead of iza-; it’s actually preferred in Standard Croatian, but less often used in the real life (e.g. about 5 times less common on the Internet).
The next three verbs have forms very similar to others. These verbs sound quite alike, and their meaning is all about moving with respect to something else rather than the destination or origin of motion. What is special about them is that they can use prepositions with nouns, but also plain objects in A, without much difference in meaning. Each verb uses a different preposition:
obići (obiđe, obišao, obišla) go around; visit
prelaziti ~ preći (pređe, prešao, prešla) cross, go over
prolaziti ~ proći (prođe, prošao, prošla) go through; pass
The verb pair starting with pro- is used when you literally pass something; it’s used with either A or kroz + A:
Prolazim kroz šumu. I’m passing through the forest.
Prošao sam kroz šumu. I passed through the forest.
Prošao sam šumu. I left the forest behind.
As in English, this pair can be used figuratively, then things just pass, i.e. they are there, and then they are not:
ijeme prolazi. Time is passing.
Bol će proći. The pain will pass.
The past form of the perf. verb is used as a real adjective, in the meaning previous, last:
Prošle godine sam bila u Zadru. I was in Zadar last year.
The verb pair starting with pre- means cross; it can be used with either preko over + G, or with just with an object in A:
Prešao sam preko mosta. I crossed over the bridge.
Prešao sam most. I crossed the bridge.
Prelazim most. I’m crossing the bridge.
The verb pair starting with obi- means go around; it can be used with either oko around + G:
Obišao sam oko kuće. I went around the house.
When used with just an object (in A) it mostly means visit, sight-see:
Obišla sam grad. I visited (went around) the city.
Another verb pair is very similar to these three, but it’s used with DL (!) only:
prilaziti ~ prići (priđe, prišao, prišla) approach, come close
Prišla sam im. I approached them.
Then, there are three verbs with completely unexpected meaning:
naći (nađe, našao, našla) find
pronalaziti ~ pronaći (pronađe, pronašao, pronašla) find, discover
snalaziti se² ~ snaći (snađe, snašao, snašla) se² manage, handle
The verb pair with na- is the main way to express this meaning in Croatian (the impf. verb nalaziti is not often used). It’s used just with an object in A:
Našao sam ključeve. I found the keys.
Naći ću ključ. I’ll find the key.
This verb pair is not used in phrases like I find her attractive and I want to find out about it. It’s only used if you physically "find" some object that was unknown or lost.
The second verb pair, with prona-, has a very similar meaning to the previous one, but it implies a longer search, and is used also when someone discovers something.
The third verb pair, with sna-, is also a kind of find: it’s used to when you manage not to get lost, either in a city you visit for the first time, or metaphorically, in something new you do, when you have to get quickly accustomed to new work, people, any new or unexpected situation, especially if you do it on your own, improvising, without assistance:
Nisam se odmah snašla u Zagrebu. I didn’t get accustomed to Zagreb immediately.
The verb pair with na-, when used with se², has meaning located, similar to English is found or can be found (in this way, the impf. verb is often used):
Pivo se nalazi u frižideru. The beer can be found in the fridge.
Rješenja se nalaze na kraju knjige. ‘Solutions’ (i.e. answer keys) are found at the end of the book.
This combination is used only for physical location, you cannot use it in meaning ‘exist’ e.g. sponges can be found in different sizes – for that, you have to use postojati (postoji) exist or some other way.
The following verb pair is similar to odlaziti ~ otići (...) but the focus is on starting a journey.
polaziti ~ poći (pođe, pošao, pošla) depart
These two verbs are not often used, mostly used when talking about trains or buses.
The following table summarizes all the verbs I’ve introduced here:
|iz-||origin, dest.||come out|
|od- (oti-)||origin, dest.||leave, depart|
|obi-||oko + G / A||go around|
|pre-||preko + G / A||cross, go over|
|pro-||kroz + A / A||pass|