The future tense is quite easy to make in Croatian. First you need the infinitive form of the verb you want to use. That’s really easy, since infinitive forms are found in any dictionary.
Next, you need forms of an auxiliary verb that’s simply made from present of the verb htjeti (hoće +, htio, htjela) want by dropping the first syllable (ho). It requires placement at the second position and looks like this:
Goran će jesti. Goran will eat.
There’s a rather strange rule: if an infinitive on -ti is followed immediately by an future auxiliary (ću², ćeš², etc.) the final -i in the infinitive is dropped:
Jest ću. I’ll eat. ®
This of course also applies to the verb biti (je² +) be:
Bit će hladno. It will be cold.
This doesn’t apply to verbs having infinitives ending in -ći:
Ići ćemo u školu. We’ll go to school.
Colloquially, it’s quite common to leave out -i from the infinitive -ti always, so you’ll hear quite often:
Goran će jest. (colloq.) Goran will eat.
(You’ll also often see, mostly in casual writing, non-standard spellings where the final -i is not dropped, e.g. biti ću, and so on.)
To express negation, use simply negative present forms of the verb htjeti, obtained by adding ne- to the ću², ćeš², etc. The negative forms are not restricted to the second position, they are rather placed before the verb in infinitive:
Neću jesti. I won’t eat.
Nećemo ići u školu. We won’t go to school.
To ask questions about the future, you can use all usual ways to form questions. The Standard way of forming yes/no questions requires full forms of the auxiliary verb, that is, putting back the ho:
Hoćemo li ići u školu? Will we go to school?
In colloquial speech, it’s possible to shorten the present of htjeti (hoću, hoćeš, etc.) to just ću², ćeš²... to express that you want to get something right away:
Ja ću pizzu. (colloq.) I’ll take a pizza.
There’s one more way of expressing future: with the verb ići (ide, išao, išla) go (in the present tense) + infinitive:
Idem prati zube. I’ll ‘wash’ my teeth right now. (= brush)
(In Croatian, teeth are ‘washed’, not ‘brushed’.) Such expressions can only be used if somebody is willingly and immediately intending to take an action: the very next thing that person intends to do is grabbing a toothbrush.
This is completely different from the English ‘going-to’ future, which can be used in e.g. it’s going to rain (as a prediction). Such predictions in Croatian can be expressed only with the plain ću², ćeš²... future:
Padat će kiša. It’s going to rain.
Idemo piti kavu. Let’s have a coffee now.
As you can see, the Croatian sentence has a completely different structure than the English one. Translating it word-for-word – we’re going to drink coffee – misses its meaning completely.
Another frequent use of the future tense is expressing things that will be done at unspecified time, e.g. when the following time adverbs are used:
jednog dana one day|
(The adverb posl
ije is a bit colloquial, when used on its own; the ending - ije in it is usually pronounced as one syllable.) For example:
Reći ću ti kasnije. I’ll tell you later.
Now, something strange, really strange. There’s a very special verb, although it has completely regular forms. Actually, it’s an alternative to the verb biti (je² +) be. It has only present forms, and its pres-3 is:
(bude) be (potential, ‘subjunctive’)
It’s impossible to translate it to English out of context; it’s often translated with get, become, etc. and it’s (in the Standard Croatian) used only in the special constructions (don’t worry, we’ll learn them soon). Therefore, Croatian has two forms of the present tense of verb biti: the irregular je² standing for real states and events, and the regular bude used only in special cases where it stands for potential, possible or desired states. ®
Using this special verb, we can simply replace the forms of auxiliary je² in the past tense with the forms of bude and create another tense – the potential future tense:
|past tense||sam², si², je²...
+ past form
|potential future||budem, budeš, bude...
+ past form
In the Standard Croatian, you cannot simply use the potential future tense or the verb (bude): it can be used only in specific constructs.
In fact, there are some constructs in Croatian where you have to use the verb (bude). They will be introduced a bit later.
In colloquial speech, especially in northwestern Croatia, including Zagreb, both are often used in ordinary sentences, interchangeably with the standard future forms. Then the verb (bude) is simply understood as the future form of the verb biti be. So you will often hear (and sometimes read):
Budemo išli u školu. (colloq. NW Croatia) We’ll go to school.
This is by no means standard, and such use is restricted to just a part of Croatia (arguably, with about a half of the total population of Croatia).
One final remark: the potential future tense is usually, in textbooks, known as the ‘exact’ future tense or future II. I think these are quite confusing names, so I’ve invented another name which makes more sense to me.
® You will sometimes see in Bosnia, occasionally in casual writing in Croatia, and always in Serbia, that in such a case, these two words are spelled fused together and the t is left out; verbs that end in -sti in infinitive change the consonant s → š:
Biće hladno. It will be cold.
Ješću. I’ll eat.
It never happens anywhere (at least in standard languages!) to verbs having infinitives in -ći.
Additionally, it’s very common in Serbia, usually in speech, to use da + present tense instead of the infinitive:
Ana će da jede. Ana will eat.
While the same forms of the verbs biti and (bude) are used in Serbia, Serbian grammars traditionally classify bude as the present tense of biti, and present tense forms (je²) as another verb (referred by the form jesam), having no infinitive.
While it’s true that bude-forms sometimes replace je²-forms, regarding je² as a verb different than biti is just absurd. Unfortunately, some materials for foreigners on the Internet repeat this bizarre approach.
A likely background for such approach is that when da + present tense is used instead of the infinitive biti, bude is used instead of je²:
Ana će da bude gladna. Ana will be hungry.
You’ll later see the exact circumstances when bude-forms replace je²-forms.