We are able to say that we are going to school or to work, but what about being in school, or at work?
It turns out we again need the prepositions u¨ and na¨, but with another noun form – the dative or locative case (just DL for short). Most books list them as separate cases, but they are really the same in all everyday situations. (Some people claim that dative and locative are really two cases, despite having identical forms, since they have different functions. However, the accusative case has more than one function as well, but nobody wants to split it to several cases.)
This table summarizes rules to put nouns into the DL case, starting from the nominative (dictionary) form:
|noun type (N)||DL|
|nouns in -a (≈ fem.)||-a → -i|
|neuter nouns (≈ in -o, -e)||-o or -e → -u|
|masc. nouns not in -a||add -u|
|fem. not in -a (e.g. noć)||add -i|
As you can see, all nouns get an ending now, and there’s no distinction for people and animals – it applies only to the accusative case. Let’s take the following nouns:
ormar closet, wardrobe ®|
peć f oven, furnace
With them, and other nouns we have already learned, can make sentences like these:
Ana je u kući. Ana is in the house.
Ivan je u Zagrebu. Ivan is in Zagreb.
Spavamo u hotelu. ▶ We sleep in a hotel.
Riba pliva u moru. A fish is swimming in the sea.
Ivan je u školi. Ivan is at school.
Kuhamo u kuhinji. We’re cooking in the kitchen.
Kolač je u peći. The cake is in the oven.
Of course, we can use objects as well:
Kuham juhu u kuhinji. I’m cooking soup in the kitchen.
Gledamo televiziju u sobi. We’re watching TV in the room.
You will find this verb useful:
živjeti (živi) live
Verbs having infinitives ending in -jeti have almost always -i in their pres-3, so they are not really irregular. Let’s put it to use:
Ana živi u Zagrebu. Ana lives in Zagreb.
Živim u Splitu. I live in Split.
As you hopefully remember, some nouns when used as destinations require na¨ instead of u¨. When they are used as locations, you still have to use na¨ with them:
Živimo na Braču. We live on the island of Brač.
Ivana je na plaži. ▶ Ivana is on the beach.
Ana je na trgu. Ana is on the (main) town square.
With locations, Croatian u¨ roughly translates as in, and na¨ as on or at. Here are a couple of ‘activities’ – you finally know how to say on vacation or at university:
Ivan je na fakultetu. ▶ Ivan is at university.
Ana je na odmoru. Ana is on vacation.
Goran je na večeri. Goran is on dinner/supper.
Ivan je na putu. Ivan is on a trip.
Don’t forget that certain Croatian nouns require na¨ where English uses in (the Core Dictionary marks such nouns). For example (nouns are here listed in DL, of course):
na nebu in the sky|
na slici in the picture
na ulici in the street
It also applies to appearing on electronic media, including movies and phone:
na filmu in the movie|
na radiju on the radio
na telefonu on the phone|
na televiziji on TV
The preposition na¨ also applies to weather conditions – being exposed to blowing wind, sun, etc:
na hladnoći in cold|
na kiši in rain
na suncu in sun, exposed to sun|
na vjetru exposed to wind
na zraku in (fresh) air
Some nouns can be used with both u¨ and na¨ – then the u¨ gives an ordinary meaning, and na¨ a derived, metaphorical one:
u moru in the sea (below surface / swimming)
na moru at the seaside; on the sea (sailing)
u selu in the village
na selu in countryside
So, when you tell in Croatian that someone’s na moru he or she can be just on vacation; when somebody is u moru, it’s swimming or diving.
What about at work? Again, we use na¨ with activities like these:
m work, job
ručak (ručk-) lunch
sastanak (sastank-) meeting
Ivan je na poslu. ▶ Ivan is at work.
Ana je na sastanku. Ana is on a meeting.
Damir je na ručku. Damir is at lunch.
To ask where something or someone is, just start a question with the following word (this word varies a lot in everyday speech, e.g. you can hear di colloquially in some parts of Croatia, including cities of Zagreb, Split and Rijeka):
gdje where ®
Nothing else is needed, there’s no change of word order; as usual in Croatian, it’s normal to answer with just a location, or you can give a longer answer if you want to emphasize the rest of the sentence:
Gdje je Ivan? ▶ Where is Ivan?
— Na putu. On a trip.
— Na putu je. He’s on a trip.
Gdje je Damir?
— Na telefonu. On the phone. (i.e. talking)
If you have examined the sentences above very carefully, you might have noticed that the stress of fakultet changed in DL. The same happens to kolač, telefon, and to many other nouns:
|N||+ DL ending|
|kolač S▶ W▶||kolaču ▶|
|fakultet S▶ W▶||fakultetu ▶|
That’s the rule for virtually all nouns ending in a consonant that have the ‘western’ stress on the last syllable and the Standard stress on the last but one (e.g. fa-kul-tet): whenever they get any ending (e.g. the DL ending -u), the Standard stress shifts right, to the ‘western’ position.
You can recognize such nouns easily – they have their last two vowels underlined in this course. However, if such nouns end in two consonants (e.g. koncert concert), there’s no stress shift. (Since it’s completely predictable, I will not specially mark it in a way I do it for verbs.)
There’s another change in DL that applies only to nouns that end in -ka or -ga. For most of them, their ending changes to -ci or -zi, but only in DL. For example:
Živimo u Americi. We live in America.
Ivan je na slici. Ivan is in the picture.
Goran ima ranu na nozi. Goran has a wound on his leg.
It does not apply to all nouns, there’s no such change in personal names and family terms like baka grandmother. (Note again how we used just the noun noga, and English always likes a possessive before such nouns.)
Unfortunately, we are still not able to say that we’re in Croatia, but I will explain it in a short while, don’t worry.
® Besides ormar, orman is also used in Bosnia, Serbia and parts of Croatia, mostly in speech.
In Montenegro, the form đe where prevails and is used as standard.